What is the Anthropocene and how is it expressed in the Great Smog of London of 1952?

An excellent answer clearly identifies, summarizes, and explains main concepts and identifies embedded or implicit issues, addressing their relationships to each other.

1. What is the Anthropocene and how is it expressed in the Great Smog of London of 1952?
2. What factors help create the different phases of the demographic transition?
3. Why is GDP no longer the sole measure in studying the development of a country?
4. How is the Malthusian Trap related to the concept of carrying capacity?
5. How does liberalism factor in creating “World Cities”?
6. How did T and O maps help us understand race as a social construction?
7. What is the difference between point and non-point source pollution?
8. Why are Vitruvius and Baron von Haussmann important in studying urban centers in Europe in the present day?
9. How do both the marine effect and continentality (or orographic precipitation or rain shadows) affect the different areas of Europe?
10. What factors may give different shapes to population pyramids?
11. Why is education an important factor in understanding the demographic transition?
12. What is the aim of the Belt Road initiative?
13. How was the kaizen system respond to Japan’s limited access to industrial resources?
14. How ETDZ’s affecting urbanization patterns in East Asia?
15. How were barefoot doctors and village schools a unique idea of Mao Zedong?
16. Discuss a possible demographic impact of the Japanese work ethic.
17. How did Russification lead to the annexation of Crimea?
18. How does the “Kurgan Hypothesis” illustrate relocation diffusion?
19. What is non-point source pollution and what are some examples of it in Russia/China/India today?
20. How do both the marine effect and continentality affect the land area of Russia and the Post-Soviet States?
21. How is Saffronization an example of a centripetal or a centrifugal force?
22. How is sex trafficking related to the market reforms of the Post-Soviet states?
23. What are some of the negative externalities associated with hydroelectric dams?
24. What are some of the consequences of the Opium Wars for China?
25. How did colonialism affect South Asian preparations for drought contingencies?
26. How is Chipko a critique of Enlightenment values?
27. How is microfinance linked to gendered notions of development?
28. What are some examples of how religion has been used for political purposes in South Asia?